Early Stage Diagnosis of Tumors and Diseases by Nanospectroscopy

Speaker: Dr. Antonio Cricenti, Istituto di Struttura della Materia (ISM-CNR)

Abstract: Carcinomas are complex biochemical systems and in the past their diagnosis was based on morphological differences between malignant cells and their benign counterpart. Recently the paradigm has changed and great interest is focused now on the biochemical profile of tumours in view of the availability of new drugs that specifically target neoplastic cells. This new paradigm requires biochemical analysis of each tumour in order to establish the correct personalized oncological “target therapy”. Understanding the mechanism of molecular alterations of a specific tumour is a critical issue to prognosticate its behaviour and to predict the response to personalized therapy.

Raman spectroscopy (RS) is a non-invasive optical label-free tool increasingly used to get molecular fingerprints of biological tissues. It is able to provide bioanalytical information on any molecule with high specificity. Technological advances over the last decade have created a new and faster Raman imaging microscope instrument, providing morphological tissue investigation of large areas, coupled with point-by-point spectral analysis of biochemical composition. This option is important not only for discrimination between healthy and pathological tissues, but especially for pre-cancerous tissue state earlier detection and understanding. Raman mapping of biological tissues have shown that the microscope can operate at a few micron resolution, in order to distinguish between healthy and malignant tissues.

The potential of IR spectroscopy to characterise cancerous tissues has long been recognised and studies of various cancers by many groups have established that regions of malignant tissue can be easily identified on the basis of its IR spectrum. Early diagnosis of cancer requires an instrument providing specific chemical images at sub-cellular level and the development of diagnostic imaging. A SNOM meets these requirements provided that it can been coupled with an appropriate infrared light source, that can be based on Free Electron Laser, femtosecond laser or quantum cascade laser.

We present Raman and Infrared Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (SNOM) in their spectroscopic mode, that is related to the local chemical composition and, thus, to the biological properties of the sample, for tissue imaging and early cancer diagnostics. Applications in the case of Oesophagous and Cervical Cancer as well as in the progression of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) will be presented.

Chairman: Dr.ssa Patrizia Logone, Head of Laboratorio di Neurobiologia Molecolare

 

CENTRO EUROPEO DI RICERCA SUL CERVELLO (CERC) - Piano 1

Data e ora 
Mercoledì, 11 Aprile 2018 - ore 12:15
Luogo 

Via del Fosso di Fiorano, 64 - 00143 Roma